Cardiac anaesthesia for heart transplantation can be divided into different durations. The precision stage is one of minimal stimulation. The goal is to maintain the primate at a sufficient isoflurane concentration (usually 1.0–1.25%) to induce loss of consciousness and avoid hemodynamic instability. Maintaining high levels of isoflurane in primates without surgical stimulation often reduces blood pressure. The period from incision to initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is characterized by a period of intense surgical stimulation. In cardiac anaesthesia, practice guidelines for echocardiographic testing and certification are well established. More recently, these educational initiatives have been extended to non-cardiac practices and critical care units. Improvements in training, affordable basic equipment, and smaller devices will make echocardiography more prevalent among anesthesiologists shortly.
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